PopeTrip'08: The Lost Prefaces
No question, this has told us many things. First, it's indicated that the interest in the coming visit has been very wide; the media coverage, very fair, even very positive... and that the burgeoning cottage industry of ecclesiastical pundits (seemingly, like Flintstone's vitamins, "10 million strong... and growing") very often appears less interested in the Pope's playbook than addressing its own issues.
Of course, that's very helpful for those who'd like to know how talking heads feel about things. As for capturing Ratzi's mind and message, well....
You see, far from the din of speculation and the barrels of ink, there lies a practically untapped source of no small value: the messages Benedict and his team of top aides have already crafted specifically for American audiences over the course of his pontificate.
Yes, such a collection of texts actually does exist. No, it isn't under some sort of pontifical secret -- but if you've been reading much of the coverage out there lately, you'd be forgiven for thinking it was.
For all practical purposes, the small ring of key texts has been surprisingly, regrettably, invisible. And of them all, none has been more neglected than an intervention scripted with the PopeTrip directly in its sights... even though, on delivery, less than a handful knew it.
Should anyone be curious, it wasn't spoken by stealth in some Roman backroom, but on American soil -- and in prime-time, no less.
Early last August, three weeks before ten of the nation's top prelates met in Washington for a classified first briefing on the visit plans, Benedict's top lieutenant -- the Vatican Secretary of State Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone -- delivered an hourlong speech at the 125th Supreme Convention of the Knights of Columbus in Nashville.
For the record, we'll be seeing a lot of Bertone during the six-day trek; when the pontiff emerges from his plane at Andrews Air Force Base, the colorful Salesian cardinal dubbed the "Vice-Pope" will appear just over his boss' shoulder, and won't be much farther behind the rest of the time. (Hence the reported addition of not one, but two new bathrooms at one of the papal lodgings for the upcoming visit.)
Cardinal Ratzinger's longtime #2 at the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, the former archbishop of Genoa -- a sporadic soccer commentator for Italian TV once tasked with leading the Vatican offensive against The DaVinci Code -- is widely acknowledged as the most influential "prime minister" the Holy See has known in nearly a century, precisely because of his bond with Benedict. What's more, since his arrival in the Apostolic Palace in September 2006 -- a move that shook up the Roman Curia as few top appointments in memory -- the 73 year-old cardinal has made little effort to conceal the vast scope of his brief, serving in turns as this pontificate's chief spokesman, loyalty enforcer, designated deputy, COO of the church's central administration and, most prominently, the travel-aversive Pope's globe-trotting emissary, most recently on concurrent swings to Armenia and Azerbaijan and, of course, a highly-publicized trek to Cuba late last month.
Yet despite his lacking English, it was Opryland that marked Bertone's first major turn on the road.
Benedict had been invited to send a representative of his choosing to preside at the KofC's 125th, and it was a surprise to almost everyone when, in late June -- barely six weeks before the convention's opening -- word came that the Secretary of State would fill the slot during the month when the the peak-season tourists are the only people milling around inside the Vatican walls.
(To put the scenario in perspective, the church's second-in-command hadn't been dispatched on a US mission since 2000, when Bertone's predecessor Cardinal Angelo Sodano celebrated the funeral of Cardinal John O'Connor in St Patrick's Cathedral as a personal sign of John Paul II's affection for the late archbishop of New York. Before that, you'd have to go back to 1989 to find a SegStat's last official jaunt to America as Cardinal Agostino Casaroli represented the Polish Pope to lead the festivities for the American hierarchy's bicentennial in Baltimore.)
Clearly, Benedict's tapping his right-hand man was, as they say, "kind of a big deal." Yet while the common perception at the time was that Bertone had been chosen simply as an unmistakable tribute to the 1.7 million-member Knights' staunch and prodigious support of the works of the Holy See, only later did it become evident that the pontiff entrusted his top collaborator with an even larger task than conveying the Vatican's appreciation and esteem for the church's largest fraternal order.
Indeed, with mid-April already blocked out on his calendar, Bertone was sent to prepare the American stage for the Pope himself.
To that end, the cardinal-secretary didn't just come bearing the customary thanks and papal message for the KofC's milestone anniversary, but a major address of his own to the nation and the US church, delivered before a multi-tiered dais of 30 cardinals and bishops and broadcast in prime-time via EWTN.
While Bertone's text was described the following day as the centerpiece of Benedict's "American playbook," little did anyone realize how quickly the blueprint would become front-page news.
Five weeks later, the first leak of the April visit's plans broke on these pages. And the rest, as they say, is history. Or the near-term future.
Whatever the case, the Nashville address can be found below in its full English translation (emphases original). All apologies to those who've complained about the length of posts, but for the benefit of those interested in gleaning what the Pope might just say in the States, another look at the tone and substance of his alter ego's "lost preface," delivered with next month's visit well in the planning, is far from a bad place to start.
You've got the backstory, gang. And now... just read closely.
His Eminence Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone, S.D.B.
Secretary of State of His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI
August 8, 2007
Knights of Columbus 125th Supreme Convention
First of all, allow me once again to express my sincere gratitude to Supreme Knight Carl A. Anderson and fellow Knights for the invitation to visit Nashville for this historic 125th Supreme Convention of the Knights of Columbus. I am honored by the opportunity to address all of you this evening on a topic as dear to me as it is to His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI: “Faith in Action: Witnessing to the ‘Yes’ of Jesus Christ.”
This evening, I will reflect on the importance of this “Yes” for the Church’s lay faithful. I will indicate some of the primary characteristics of the lay vocation within the Church and in society at large, and I will point to a few particular challenges facing the laity today.
Both in his work as a theologian and now in his ministry as the successor of Peter, His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI has repeatedly drawn attention to the distinctive and irreplaceable role of the laity in the renewal of the Church’s mission in the modern world. At 78 years of age, Pope Benedict said “Yes” to his brother cardinals, to the Church, and to the Holy Spirit when he was asked to accept the Petrine ministry after the long and remarkable reign of the Servant of God, Pope John Paul II. The Holy Father’s willingness to assume pastoral duties as Chief Shepherd of the universal Church bore witness to the fundamental attitude required of every Christian – Pope, Bishop, priest, consecrated, or lay person; it is the disposition exemplified in our Lady’s humble but sure response to the Lord’s heavenly messenger in Nazareth: “Fiat!” – “Yes!”
The “Yes!” of Faith in Jesus Christ
But what exactly is the essence of this “Yes”? More specifically, how is one to live it out as a member of the laity?
In regard to the first question, this “Yes” is quite simply the “Yes” of faith. It is our full, unmitigated acceptance of Jesus as Lord and our commitment to follow him as master and teacher. Indeed, the word “Yes” only makes sense within the context of a dialog between two persons: someone who utters the “Yes” and someone who accepts it. In the case of faith, the person to whom we utter this “Yes” is none other than the Son of God, the Anointed One, the Eternal Word made flesh. Pope Benedict has emphasized the critical need for each of us to encounter Jesus; more importantly, he has shown and continues to show – both in his words and through his life – that true fulfilment, joy, and lasting peace can only be found by saying “Yes” to God’s plan of salvation as revealed in the person of Jesus Christ. Only in intimate communication with the incarnate Son of God do we discover the grace to “put our faith into action.”
Your founder Father Michael McGivney was prophetic – indeed, well ahead of his time – in that he clearly understood that this complete and total “Yes” to Christ was in no way exclusive to those who received holy orders or had taken religious vows. On the contrary, it is a “Yes” required of every man and every woman.
As a young curate at Saint Mary’s Church in New Haven, Father McGivney became keenly aware of the laity’s need to be actively and fully engaged in the life of the Church by exercising virtue, cultivating prayer, and caring for others. He had a deep appreciation for the special characteristics of the lay vocation as being thoroughly immersed in the spheres of the family, civil society, and public life. He made it his goal to develop practical ways of ensuring that faith could be put into concrete action: especially by providing for the material needs of orphans, widows, the imprisoned, alcoholics, the unemployed, and the destitute.
However, it is sometimes easy to forget that Father McGivney’s conviction was based on an even more fundamental insight: namely, that our concern for the needy and our perseverance in charitable works will eventually become attenuated and deprived of their deeper meaning if they are not rooted in faith – faith understood as the indwelling of Holy Trinity in our hearts through divine grace as we renew our “Yes” each day to the person of Jesus Christ.
Faith and Love
This is precisely the message Pope Benedict XVI conveys through his Encyclical Letter Deus Caritas Est. When asked why he devoted his first Encyclical to the theme of love, he replied that he wished to manifest the humanity of the faith. Only by living the life of faith – that is, only by deeply immersing ourselves in the love and mercy of God as revealed in Jesus Christ – are we able to love and forgive our neighbor as ourselves. When it comes to living this faith in the midst of an increasingly complex and contradictory world, no one knows more about the obstacles and challenges that can so easily discourage us than the Church’s laity. Whether in family life, in the workplace, or in the public square, lay persons are continually tempted to compromise their “Yes” to God by diluting Gospel values and by placing limits or conditions on love of neighbor.
The Holy Father underlined the unique challenges posed by the contemporary world to the lay vocation during his Pastoral Visit to Brazil. Noting that America is a “continent of baptized Christians,” he asserted that “it is time to overcome the notable absence – in the political sphere, in the world of the media and in the universities – of the voices and initiatives of Catholic leaders with strong personalities and generous dedication, who are coherent in their ethical and religious convictions.” The Pope insisted strongly that it is necessary for Christians who are active in these social and cultural milieus to strive to safeguard ethical values. Above all, he said, “Where God is absent – God with the human face of Jesus Christ – these values fail to show themselves with their full force, nor does a consensus arise concerning them. I do not mean that non-believers cannot live a lofty and exemplary morality; I am only saying that a society in which God is absent will not find the necessary consensus on moral values or the strength to live according to the model of these values, even when they are in conflict with private interests.” In short, being a Catholic in the world today takes courage; yet it takes no more courage than it did when Jesus called his first disciples in Galilee.
The role of the lay faithful: Vatican II and Benedict XVI
The Holy Father frames his teaching on the role of the laity within the context of the Second Vatican Council, and interweaves it in an unbroken line with the teaching of Pope John Paul II. The guiding principle is always the same: namely the “universal call to holiness.”
“It is quite clear,” the Council fathers teach us, “that all Christians in whatever state or walk of life are called to the fullness of Christian life and to the perfection of charity.” Insofar as it is a call to holiness, the call to the lay state is no less a “vocation” than that of the priesthood or religious life. It has its own distinctive nature, which is absolutely essential to the healthy, overall functioning of the Body of Christ, the Church. Lumen Gentium explains: “It is the special vocation of the laity to seek the Kingdom of God by engaging in temporal affairs and directing them according to God’s will.”
Clearly, if lay persons are to “carry out” and “develop” temporal matters according to “Christ’s way,” they must first know Christ. They must take seriously Saint Paul’s exhortation to have “the mind of Christ." This vision of the Church as proposed by Saint Paul and elaborated by the Second Vatican Council demands not only our active engagement with the world, but primarily our active engagement with the person of Jesus. Otherwise, we can easily fall into the trap of confusing the way of Christ with the ways of the world.
Through Christ’s passion, death, resurrection and ascension, he has renewed the face of the earth; but – as is evident in the words he speaks in the Gospel of Saint John – the “world” still “has not known” Christ, and in fact often “hates” Christ. It is no surprise then that Christians often encounter resistance, opposition, and even persecution in the world. Pope Benedict reminds us that the only possible response for a Christian in the face of rejection is love – a response made possible for us through the grace of Christ. Because God’s very existence is love, love is the very essence of the Christian life. The universal call to holiness is about patiently, deliberately, and “programmatically” sharing this love with the world. It is for this reason that the metaphor of “leaven” – used by our Lord and adopted at the Second Vatican Council – so aptly describes the concrete reality of living as a Christian in this world: the work of Christians is often hidden, but nonetheless steady and consistent, causing the entire dough to rise.
“The Church sets out with humility on her journey, between the sorrows of this world and the glory of the Lord. On this journey, we will need to grow in patience.” Nevertheless, as the Holy Father noted, “the Catholic Church grows in every century. Today too, the presence of the Crucified and Risen Lord is growing. He still has his wounds, yet it is precisely through his wounds that he renews the world, giving that breath which also renews the Church despite our poverty…In this combination of the humility of the Cross and the joy of the Risen Lord…we can go ahead joyfully, filled with hope.”
Enthusiasm and boldness, filled with hope, have always been characteristic of the Knights of Columbus, and this will no doubt remain at the heart of their apostolate in the future.
Cooperation in the Church: A Challenge and an Opportunity
I would like to pause for a moment to reflect on this point. Our integral and persuasive witness to the truth of the Gospel depends heavily on the ability of Bishops, priests, deacons, religious and laity to work together for the spread of God’s Kingdom by acknowledging the distinctive role of each vocation within the Body of Christ. For the Knights of Columbus, perhaps this is most clearly evident at the parish level. How wonderful it is to behold the pastor, the local council of Knights, and the rest of the parish mutually supporting one another as they each exercise their unique forms of service for the building up of the local community!
During your time together at this 125th Supreme Convention, I would invite you to encourage and inspire one another by sharing experiences and ideas of how to facilitate effective cooperation between yourselves, your Bishops, your pastors, members of the parish staff, and the civic communities in which you live and work. If your local community is suffering from the wounds of division, be they large or small, take the opportunity to deepen your cohesion, since when this is lacking in a parish family or a local Church, the ability to witness to Christ in the larger society is weakened. At such times, prayer and faith are all the more essential to bring about healing and reconciliation. Pope Benedict writes: “the Spirit is…the energy which transforms the heart of the ecclesial community, so that it becomes a witness before the world to the love of the Father, who wishes to make humanity a single family in his Son.”
Benedict XVI’s Pauline Vision of the Church
On June 28th – the eve of the Solemnity of Saints Peter and Paul – Pope Benedict announced the opening of a special Jubilee year commemorating the bimillenary of Saint Paul’s birth. Over the next year, the Church will reflect on the life and writings of this great “Apostle to the Gentiles.”
In fact, the vivid images Paul uses to describe the Church – both at the local and universal level – have always been very dear to His Holiness. He employs them often in more informal discussions with clergy and laity.
For example, in responding to a question addressed to him during an audience with members of the clergy of the Diocese of Rome, the Holy Father recently said: “The Church, though a body, is the body of Christ and therefore a spiritual body, as Saint Paul teaches. This seems extremely important to me: that people will be able to see the Church not as a super-national organization, not as an administrative body or means for power and domination, not as a social agency – even though she carries out a social and ‘supra-national’ mission – but rather as a spiritual body.
Pope Benedict is not only a man of deep theological wisdom; he also brings to the Petrine ministry extensive pastoral experience. He has no illusions about the serious challenges confronting local ecclesial communities today.
One such challenge is the tendency to focus too narrowly on the administrative, bureaucratic, and financial aspects of parish and diocesan life. Not that these are unimportant – on the contrary! However, we end up viewing worldly realities through a distorted lens if we fail to see them with the eyes of Christ. We can only be prudent stewards of worldly goods if we freely subject them to the good of eternal life.
Every concrete method and strategy taught and promoted by Father McGivney in the public square was aimed at the good of the human person destined for eternal life. Father McGivney’s legacy lives on today in the Knights’ continuing effort to keep themselves – and others – informed about complex issues regarding human life, justice, freedom, and the common good.
Friendship and Joy: The Key to Understanding Pope Benedict XVI
Finally, I must say a word about two recurring themes in Pope Benedict’s teaching which are absolutely essential for the “animation” of “the entire lives of the lay faithful”: friendship and joy. These, I believe, are the keys for grasping Pope Benedict’s thought on what it means to translate faith into action.
The words “friendship” and “joy” echo continuously throughout his preaching, especially when he addresses himself to young people as they prepare to gather for the 2008 World Youth Day in Sydney. According to Pope Benedict, “friendship” and “joy” have God as their primary reference. The Holy Father never tires of reminding us that God is near, that he is our friend, and that he is constantly speaking to us about the most essential things in life. He accompanies us on our journey through this life, in our joys and sorrows, and – as a Good Shepherd who cares only for his flock – he never abandons us.
At the 2005 World Youth Day in Cologne, His Holiness said this to the young people present: “A true revolution can take place only by radically turning to God without reserve; he alone is the measure of all that is just, while at the same time existing as love eternal. And what could possibly save us if not love?”
Love is the source of the Holy Father’s inspiration in all that he undertakes, and especially in his commitment to dialogue. He has spoken with countless lay persons, listening attentively to their practical ways of reasoning. He truly follows the agenda he set for himself at the beginning of his pontificate: “My true program for governing the Church is not to carry out my own will or pursue my own ideas, but to place myself together with the entire Church in listening to the Word of the Lord, discerning his will, and allowing myself be led by him, because he alone will guide the Church through this phase of history.”
The Holy Father always teaches with clarity and precision, and with a spirit of humility and encouragement. He wants everyone to understand how beautiful and fulfilling it is to be a Christian, to experience a personal, living encounter with a life-changing “event,” to meet the One who opens a whole new horizon and gives life a new, decisive direction. It is precisely for this reason that even the commandments are never too burdensome for us if we are abiding with Christ.
In his first public interview after having been elected Pope, the Holy Father summarized his deepest wish, both for young people and for the entire world:“I want them to understand that it is beautiful to be a Christian! The generally prevailing idea is that Christians have to observe an immense number of commandments, prohibitions, precepts, and other such restrictions, so that Christianity is a heavy and oppressive way of living, and it would therefore be more liberating to live without all these burdens. But I would like to make it clear that to be sustained by this great Love and God’s sublime revelation is not a burden, but rather a set of wings – that it is truly beautiful to be a Christian. It is an experience that gives us room to breathe and move, but most of all, it places us within a community since, as Christians, we are never alone: first of all, there is God, who is always with us; secondly, we are always forming a great community among ourselves: a community of people together on a journey, a community with a project for the future. All of this means that we are empowered to live a life worth living. This is the joy of being a Christian; that it is beautiful and right to believe!”Indeed, how beautiful it is to believe, for to believe is to say “Yes” to Christ; and to say “Yes” to Christ is to bear witness to our faith in action. My dear Knights of Columbus, may you always remain men firmly committed to this “Yes” – “Yes” to your families, to your Church, and to your communities – but most importantly, to Christ who is the “Yes” to all our hopes and desires. God bless you all.
Other significant US-geared texts of this pontificate include the 2006 and 2007 "November Meeting" talks of Benedict's hand-picked American messenger, Archbishop Pietro Sambi, to the nation's bishops and the Pope's own speeches to the two US ambassadors to the Holy See welcomed since his election: Francis Rooney in 2005, and Mary Ann Glendon just last Leap Day. To boot, in an interview earlier this year with Italy's largest magazine, Bertone returned to the Stateside visit alongside other questions facing the church and the world.
On a related note, Catholic News Service's John Thavis -- the dean of Anglophone Vatican correspondents -- recently tipped that the papal message in the States might well end up bearing a close resemblance to the threads of the Pope's "provocative, fundamental," seeker-friendly homily on Palm Sunday.
Suffice it to say, don't be surprised if that pans out, too. As for the rest, consider the source.